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February 23, 2006

Comments

emptywheeler: I'm not the brightest star in the sky; been wondering where that brain of your's is. I'm glad I finally found it. Your posts are always a pleasure. The neo-feudalism was a bit depressing, however.

emptywheel, sorry a little off topic; I don't know how much you know about Hannah Arendt, but it seems to me that she and Strauss were contemporaries who came to opposite conclusions with respect to Political Philosophy. Both Arendt and Strauss saw Heidegger, a towering intellect (Being and Time), join the Nazi party, and then help the Nazi's carry out the worst abuses of the Nuremburg Laws, firing people based on their ethnicity. I bring it up only because after 1945, Heidegger said he had "resigned" from the Nazi party, something I think Arendt, who had been his lover, was one of the few to take seriously. Fukuyama does not sound as though he is in Heidegger's class as an intellectual, but he certainly sounds like he's got Heidegger's sense of loyalty (snark alert), thanks for the great post.

Nicely done EW, beautifully written

Thanks for the post, EW.

Even though he is smarter, and even though I think his actual proposals - as opposed to his fuzzy little history of the neocon movement - are good, Fukuyama reminds me of David Brooks a bit here - more ridiculous than Brooks, in fact.

I've got a half-written post about this which I may never finish; you and Michael Signer and Eric Martin and others, have covered it well. But, at the risk of being pompous, here's a couple of bits from my still-born post anyway:

Fukuyama:

Leo Strauss, who, contrary to much of the nonsense written about him by people like Anne Norton and Shadia Drury, was a serious reader of philosophical texts who did not express opinions on contemporary politics or policy issues.

I [also] don't know who Anne Norton is, but I have read a few books by Drury. What she writes is hardly 'nonsense'. Shadia Drury is an academic philosopher who deliberately writes about Strauss, Kojeve, and other post modernists in an utterly and exclusively 'exoteric' - ie plainspoken - way. She is a gifted popularizer of clear, logical thinking, and has found the perfect catalyst for it.

Mr Fukuyama hedges. Drury, at least, never suggested that Strauss wasn't a 'serious reader of philosophical texts'; she thinks he's extremely serious, and wrong. And of course he didn't 'express opinions on contemporary politics or policy issues' like our Frank is doing so well in this piece. So what? All these [neocons], Fukuyama included, do believe that Ideas alone rule and shape the world. The notion that Strauss was not a political philosopher is laughable. (If he wasn't, then there's no such thing.) PoMo - left and right - is all about politics; in fact, obsessively so.

____

Fukuyama:

Radical Islamism is a byproduct of modernization itself, arising from the loss of identity that accompanies the transition to a modern, pluralist society.

This is exactly right. The overarching social problem of our time is indeed identity-anxiety in a shrinking, changing world. [In fact, Shadia Drury makes exactly this point at the end of her brilliant 'Kojeve' book]. What is the neocon prescription for this malady? To fetish identity.

When you zig, neocons zag. It's neoconservatism's very vagueness which makes it as successful as it has been; it's whatever anybody says it is at any given moment, and that most definitely includes Fukuyama. We owe a debt to Drury and other critics who nail down what it actually *does* mean: a frontal attack on liberalism itself (ie, attacking the idea of Church/State separation, with vague, often disingenuous chatter about religion in 'the public square'); awe for its own sake; more power accruing to the Executive and the Courts; an anti-idealism which manages to also be...er...extremely idealistic; a countering of cynical 'realism' with....cynical realism which looks or might even be (on tuesdays and thursdays) idealistic . In a word, horseshit.
____

I didn't know about the Scooter stuff. 'Foreswear but not forego'. Exactly.

Again OfT, but it looks as though the WaPo's David Ignatius read your post on neo-feudalists, although he did not use your term.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/23/AR2006022301412.html

Sounds more like a rat looking to leave the ship.

Great post, Emptywheel.
Fukuyama is most disingenuous IMO. In the end the only person he's fooling is himself.
Anybody with half a notion of how power works in this world knew the whole Iraqi thing was bullshit from the start - that it was being fixed - and that MUST include Fukuyama.

I think his piece is an attempt to cover for the Neocons:- "It's all over, folks. Nothing to see here. Go back to sleep."

Anyone who follows a philosopher who justifies lying is a fool because how can you ever trust them?
By definition their philosophy can have no credibility thereafter.

jonnybutter

Thanks for linking to Signer and Martin. I had meant to but got distracted when I was in the middle of the post. And thanks, too, for mentioning Kojeve. I think I mentioned that's how I first discovered Drury. She's no more or less forgiving of French post-Hegelians than she is of Strauss. Which suggest Neo-Cons just can't see, as you say, plainspoken, honest scholarship when they see it.

Now that I've sat on this for a night, I think I agree with Griffon (I hope I'm reading you right, Griffon). This was no more than an attempt to excuse the Neo-Cons, to give them a new lease on credibility. Yet as Drury makes clear, it's the notion of elite that drives these guys, and that won't change even with a very public mea culpa.

EW, wonderful post. And you are right that Fukuyama is just fooling himself because he really doesn't understand the inherent flaws underlying his thinking. I believe a major problem for the conservatives (and neo-conservatives) is that they believe it is okay to lie to get their way. They believe the ends justify the means and IMO it is this belief that *IS* the start of the slippery slope leading to justifying true evil. The use of lies absolutely pollutes their ability to assess reality.

A long while ago, I wrote about how I believe an inherent flaw for the Conservative movement is their use of Deceptive Language because by embracing lying, they lose the ability to identify real problems and so are doomed to come up with solutions that have no basis in reality. Indeed, George Orwell warned that this was a real problem for those who use propaganda as a means to the end.

FF lost me when he re-fashioned himself into a critic of biotechnology.

EW:

Thanks once again for an enlightening and enjoyable read.

Fukuyama, of course, made his "bones" - at least as a scholar that commands attention among "serious thinkers" about political economics - in the early 1990s with his splashy "end of history" thesis. This idea was then and remains, of course, utter rot. Fukuyama has a pre-modern sense of history, which he uses to dress up in drag a post-modernist justification for what Orlando Patterson would call "aristocratic freedom" - i.e., the freedom of a cultural and economic elite to rule without question over the "ignorant masses."

I'll give you one quote of his to demonstrate what I mean:

"[We have reached the end of history] understood as a single, coherent, evolutionary process, when taking into account the experience of all peoples in all times."

The breathtakingly arrogant vacuity of that statement speaks for itself.

Thank you, thank you.

I read the NYT magazine article on Monday and then sat back and wondered what planet he was on and, more importantly, what planet does he think we're on?

Perhaps he's too new to the interenets to remember those ancient words of wisdom: we will fact check your ass.

Although I agree with Mary that the neocons' use of deceptive language is a serious probelm, I believe it stems from what Emptywheel points out, their self-deluded elitism and belief that they know best. "Boys whispering in corners" captures it perfectly. Ultimately what they want is power, and conservative intellectuals have each and every one sold their soul for that. There is no true independent voice on the Right, because they are crucified as apostates if they deviate from the Bush/GOP line (see Bruce Bartlett). This has emptied their thought of any true moral content.

And they so readily embrace lying because fundamentally they are not interested in solving problems, or at least not real-world problems. Just "problems" of their own imagining, such as how the US can control the world and remake it in its own image, an impossibility if there ever was one.

You and some of the commenters might be interested in my Middle East Policy piece Lessons from Walmart and the Wehrmacht on an essay by Fukuyama, Abram Shulsky of OSP and edited by Zalmay Khalilzad which in 2003 I saw as an early blueprint for neocon management technique. I like to think Fukuyama saw it and realized the extremity of the project which he was participating in. The point about Strauss and Wohlstetter which he makes is one I developed in another piece in Middle East Policy this winter tracing the intellectual descent line of Wohlstetter down to the present day."The New Ivory Towers: Strategic Studies, Think Tanks and "Counterrealism" (Middle East Policy XII (4))

EW--

Re your point about Griffon's idea that this is just a way to excuse the neocons, call me cynical, but I'll see that and raise you a point further. Not only was this a non-apology apology, but rather I'd say this is the first salvo in a Great Euphemization of the neocon label.

Like death and taxes, linguistic euphemization is as close as we can get to near certainty in this world. If you've got a controversial, repugnant or otherwise negatively-connotated philosophy or idea that you refuse (or in some cases the ugly practicalities of society refuse) to let go of, just dress it up in a brand-new, shiny linguistic form, and voila, you've reinvented yourself.

I think that's what Fukuyama's doing, consciously or no. He certainly hasn't let go of the idea of elite rule, as you've pointed out, which is in essence the raison d'etre for the neocon philosophy. So, he and a few other "breakaways" will be the pioneers for the new neoconservatism with its new "branding," and we'll just repeat this whole cycle again. Look for prominent mention of Strauss as an "influence" tempered with "but as events of the early 21st century have demonstrated..." lines to discredit the actions of Wolfowitz, Perle, Cheney, Rummy, etc.

The question that bugs me, literally keeps me up at night sometimes, is Winston Smith's old nemesis, "I understand the how?, but not the why?" More specifically, are the PNACers motivated by "true" idealism (do they believe in their cause?) or do they (consciously or not) use their cause as merely rationale for their own delusions of grandeur? I'm tempted to say the latter is probably more correct, it's easy to talk yourself into almost anything, even things that are morally repugnant, when the flip-side is coming to terms with your own flaws and past mistakes. Also fits with current admin's MO of blame everyone else except those actually making the decisions at the top.

A little off-topic but, to be more general, is there ever anyone in a significant position of influence who consciously chooses one path over another full-well knowing in his or her mind (and understanding entirely the likely consequences of the action and the ugly details invovled) that such a decision will result in the upheaval of, permanent disability of, death of, or the infliction of immense suffering on untold millions of people without any sort of mitigating rationale to the positive?

Put more simply, are people capable of making such a "net-negative" decision, whereby the overall well-being of the world is irreperably changed for the worse (perhaps for very long time periods) when the "up-side" of such a decision benefits at most a few tens or perhaps hundred souls? To me, such is the definition of true "evil."

At least when Truman authorized the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, he rationalized it with the possibility of making the lives of millions of Americans (and indirectly Europeans) better by bringing the horrifics of WWII to a close. You can debate whether or not that rationalization was justified and whether imperial Japan was in its "dying throes" anyway, but I think Truman truly believed the A-bomb was a "net-positive" decison.

Can people CONSCIOUSLY understand the ramifications of such choices and knowing that there is little if anything to be gained, still make the decision? Or is that why so often, the leaders are true "bubble-boys," so they cannot come to terms with the true enormity of the decisions before them?

peanut

Those look really fascinating. I'm printing them out so I can read them once I meet todays ^#&$%@*$ deadline.

viget

Yeah, I think you're right--I'm not sure if this is conscious on Fukuyama's part, but that seems to be the gig. Fucked up on a collosal scale? Simply rename your movement!!

I think it varies, among Neocons, whether they believe the Ignoble Lies. I do think Fukuyama was a true believer. Honestly, I think Wolfowitz is a bit of a true believer. But I think the rest looked at it this way:

The dollar exchange is going to fail, soon. Finite resources (oil) will also fail soon. The American economy is a house of card and someone (China?) has a hold of that critical structure card there at the bottom. So do you:

A. Go for broke, grab as much as you can in the waning days of dollar hegemony, in the hopes you'll be able to outlast, and outsurvive your opponent. Knowing full well that this option, while it may significantly diminish the quality of life of your people, will ensure that you remain in charge for the forseeable future.

OR

B. Look to achieve a soft landing AND some kind of world governance whereby all the world's people cooperate to survive as best we can in increasing insecure times. THis will require real leadersihp, particularly in the form of consumer sacrifice. Some might even accuse you of making "malaise" speeches.

I think Dick Cheney chose option A. Honestly, one thing I do credit him with is attempting to solve a very real problem. He isn't just doing this for kicks. But he either can't distinguish his own welfare from that of the people he purports to lead, or he doesn't give a damn.

And would you apologize the next time you ruin my shot at a quail, damnit?

EW:

Neo-Cons just can't see...plainspoken, honest scholarship when they see it.

Plain speaking is actually the implicit-explicit (yes, this gets ridiculous fast) enemy. Whenever you criticize neocon-ism, a True Believer (or useful semi-idiot) like Wolfowitz or Fukuyama will scoff and tell you just don't understand ('nonsense!'); and then they take you on some vague, circuitous route - making CERTAIN you don't understand. I believe the technical term is 'baffling with bullshit'. Actually, I don't think THEY understand it entirely, because in the end, it's really about 'feeling' it, not understanding it. It's evidently kind of a 'need to know' philosophy, as well.

It seems to me that neocons are creating or exacerbating exactly what they feared in the first place: good intentions leading to disaster and tyranny; disjunction; alienation; anomie. It takes hundreds of cubic yards of intellectual 'horsepower' (or fiber) and lots of 'special' education to be this monumentally foolish. Yow.

I personally sneer at the concept of post-modernism itself, not withstanding the fact that it inevitably yields some interesting insights and exponents here and there. It's not really a movement at all, but a mere reaction to modernism, ie a decadent form modernism. Ho hum.

thanks again for the post, and for the good thread.

'baffling with bullshit'

Ah, but you see, I've got a PhD in bullshit, so I see right through them.

Actually, as one of Frederick Jameson's academic grandchildren, I don't put much stock in the uniqueness of postmodernism. But I guess the third generation is always full of apostates.

Because the link was at the top of ew's post, I actually read the entire article before coming back here to read the comments. By the end I had decided that either (a) this guy is a total wanker, or (b) he was deliberately floating out this BS as part of a neocon disinformation strategy.

Upon reading your comments, I was pleased to see that others had arrived at similar conclusions. I still can't be sure exactly which possibility is the correct one -- can someone really be so seemingly articulate yet not recognize that he is spouting BS? (I think I can guess ew's answer). Come to think of it, maybe both (a) and (b) are true in this case.

In any case, it is reassuring to see that so many of you agree on the bottom line, namely that this article is a load of codswallop.

Hey EW, have you read about the NSA program "Firstfruits" which targets journalists (sorry to be off topic)? The admonistration is going after leaks of classified info to journalists via the NSA. Quite a nice deal for the WH, leak classified info for partisan purposes to the journalists and then go and investigate them! There won't be many journos left after enough targeted leaks by Rove/Libby et al.


I'd like to take this time to let all of you know if you haven't figured it out already that DHinMI is a fucking douche bag. I swear if i ever have the pleasure of meeting you i will punch you in your fucking mouth. If i am lucky enough to win the lottery i will beat the living fuck out of you then hire the best lawyer with my new found wealth to defend me.

you are a piece of shit and a fucking cunt.

Have a good day

to answer viget's question "are people capable of making such a "net-negative" decision?"

the answer is surely a resounding "yes" - people do it all the time. the only trick is to internalize the benefit and externalize the cost. think of someone breaking into a car to steal a cellphone, or a company that pollutes a river. the definition of evil? sure. (and/or selfishness)

i disagree with EW that the neocons were trying to solve some long-term problem (oil, currency) for the benefit of future generations of americans. for that to be the case, we have to assume that they are actually trying to govern, and that they are somehow selfless, and that they are somehow patriotic. color me skeptical.

I reckon the motivation is more likely to be something direct, immediate and selfish - perhaps bribes, or the chance to profiteer, or some other unseen reason.

Haven't read the comments yet, and mostly just lurk, but this caught my eye:

"continue to pursue the same goals they have from the start of this administration: ongoing American hegemony, preferably under the guise of idealism, but by means of pure force"

and thats the problem of their perception of force. They think it is something that can simply be deployed to achieve the aim on the checklist, and any blowback that occurs is in a vacuum they think is negligible. whereas now the real problem is that our hegemony, in the academic sense of the word, is and has been tottering on the brink of the unilateral moment since we flushed any worldwide 911 sympathy down the chute with abu ghraib and other notorious events.

before, our hegemony was worth a shit because overall the USA was perceived as a net good to the world, drawing people to respect our ideas, if not always agree with him. I'm not so sure the US is viewed as a benelovent superpower any longer. That is the righteous side of the debate forfeited by the tunnel vision we see now...

As an aside to the 'what to called the Rethuglicans' now that so many are having deathbed conversions from being sinful NeoConJobs...

...from the Village Voice, by James Ridgeway concerning a certain country and their style of government....

As the Financial Times put it, in the UAE, "Western fraud investigators may find a link here or a connection there, with a person suspected of breaking western laws. But in Dubai...trails tend to vanish like wind-blown tracks in desert sands...Secrecy keeps everyone guessing and speculating....

'Medieval feudalism' is how one senior western banker described Dubai's style of government, 'with a veneer of 21st century regulations.'

Oh yeh, and a parting thought:

Bill Maher said that Bush is giving the ports to Foreigners so that we can fight them over here instead of over there.

Yes, you read me correctly, Emptywheel.

When you have lost your hold or influence over the public's mind, the first thing you need to do is regain credibility. You do this by agreeing with their arguement but at the same time inserting a "Trojan Horse" which will allow you to steer public opinion back on to your (Neocons'/Fukuyama's) course.

And the "Trojan Horse" is ......

"Neoconservatism, .......... , has evolved into something I can no longer support."

Neoconservatism has not evolved at all. It has ALWAYS been about world domination through military force if necessary. The PNAC documents make this quite plain.

Fukuyama (what an unfortunate name!) and the other think tank mouthpieces are paid employees of Big Money. Money speaks and they are really no more than Rent-a-Heads

I think with any "expert" or "academic" the first question that should be asked is "Who's paying them?"

I am very gratified to read other commenters observations about lying, credibility and sustainable reality.

If I may be permitted to ramble a bit, to understand how some people can make decisions that result in the deaths of thousands and more and go home to dinner with the family, it would be helpfull to study the mental pathology of substance addiction.

Power is addictive and it most certainly corrupts. It leads to the same mental pathology as any other addiction in my experience. Priorities are stood on their head and all things must be sacrificed if they in any way stand in the way of the addiction.

Everything is cool and reasonable until there is a threat to the supply and then watch the fur fly.

In short, these Neocons (et al) are detached from reality in the same way an addict is - they are in control and everything is OK.
But, in fact, they are quite literally mad; highly functioning but mad never-the-less and with absolutely no insight into it.

Again, great post Emptywheel, and great comments

ew said: Ah, but you see, I've got a PhD in bullshit, so I see right through them.

Thank god.

Griffon-

Great insight. That's essentially O'Brien's answer to Winston Smith. Power is an end, not a means. Anything that threatens power must be put down.

I do not doubt that the genesis of "evil" (I kind of dislike that simple word, but there is no "right" word to embody the concept of utter and wanton disregard for the majority of humanity) lies at the nexus of the twin psychopathologies of addictive behavior vis-a-vis power coupled with various shades of personality disorder (narcissitic, antisocial, schizoid, you name it). The scale, I guess, depends on the degree of power that one wields.

EW, O/T but I posted this in the latest Fitz-related thread at FDL. Leopold, if you cand trust him, may have just tipped us off as to who Mr. X is (and I think it might be the same source for Woodward and Novak)

I think Robert Joseph (current Undersecretary of State for Nonproliferation and Arms Control, Bolton's old job, and formerly NSC advisor on nonproliferation issues) is Mr.X, both Woodward's source and possibly even Novak's second source.

Reasons why:

1) Per the AP article and Jason Leopold's newest, we're told that Woodward's source (who does not work at the WH) will not be identified by Fitz or the judge to Libby's lawyers. Leopold provides the additional info that this source works at the NSC.

2) Leopold's 20 February article is all about Joseph's possible role in the leak, and cites unnamed sources as saying he's a "possible source" for the leak. He's also fingered as being the one DIRECTLY responsible for including the 16 words in the SOTU, over the protestations of Alan Foley of the CIA, the head of WINPAC.

3) Joseph comes from a solid neoconservative pedigree, and is also the prime architecht of the US abandoning the ABM treaty. He has solid credentials in both the Reagan and Bush I Pentagons. During Clinton's years of office, he was head of the National Defense University's Counterproliferation research center. His major policy accomplishment has been the formation of the Proliferation Security Initiative with John Bolton, which essentially is a legal groundwork to allow US ships to interdict any and all seafaring vessels they have "reasonable" suspicion might be harboring WMDs.

4) He is a major nuclear and counterproliferation hawk, believing that diplomatic efforts to stem nuclear proliferation have failed and that the US faces a greater threat from long-range missles now than during the cold war. His stance is to abandon proliferation treaties, work to develop nuclear "first-strike" capabilities, and beef up counterproliferation efforts worldwide to prevent nuclear materials from getting into "rogue states'" hands.

5)As the NSC go-to-guy on counterproliferation, he would have close ties to Bolton's shop at State and the CIA's CPD. He WOULD have need-to-know clearance for Plame's NOC status, as well as some operational details regarding her activities, maybe?

So, here's my speculation. Joseph is really pissed about Wilson's dissing of the Niger intel, and more specifically, the 16 words (which he was responsisble for). I don't know if Joseph actually thought Iraq had nuclear capability, or if he's a paranoid freak that just wants to prevent ANY remotely-linked nuclear tech and materials from getting into "rogue states'" hands.

Regardless, he sees Wilson as a big nemesis, and happens to find out that Plame, whom he knows from his counterproliferation work, is married to Wilson and was present during CIA meetings where the decision to send him was made. So he lets OVP (either DeadEye himself, or Scooter) know about this, and they run with it from there.

I think he's also a good bet for Novak's source as he could be described as "no partisan gunslinger" given his extensive academic work on the subject (though we know that's not REALLY true). And he's just not politically savvy enough to realize the enormity of what he'd done.

But that's just my guess.

"Power is an end, not a means. Anything that threatens power must be put down."

That nails it Viqet!

lukery

Oh, I was not by any means saying the NeoFeudalists were doing something in the interest of the people:

Knowing full well that this option, while it may significantly diminish the quality of life of your people, will ensure that you remain in charge for the forseeable future.

They're conflating their interests with those of the US to justify this. But they have to know that the overwhelming majority of the people in the US won't benefit.

wd

And of course Gramsci described hegemony as exercising power without using force. So I guess we're at the far ranges of hegemony anyway.

viget

It would be hard to find someone who didn't work at WH and did work "at NSC" (although that description is technically incorrect, anyway--people either work for the National Security Adviser, which would mean they don't have offices at WH but are legally the WH, which is why they get privilege, or they're really NSC, which consists of principals + NSA + Cheney's NSA, Hannah).

And in any case, Joseph would not now be considered an employee of NSC.

If you're going to assume that "not at the WH" speaks to the geographic definition, where a person's office is, rather than the legal definition, then Eliott Abrams would be far and away the best candidate, not least because he has been a suspect in this since day one.

viget-
matt cooper had a now forgotten Time piece fingering Joseph as the sneaky source of the 16 words in the days when he and rove were playing hide and seek phone tag. I'm pretty sure the phrase "welfare reform" from the Rove Hadley (?) email refers to planting a story with cooper about Joseph to do damage control on a parallel track to Plame outing....

Wheel, alarmingly off topic, but back to what Cheney and friends were hiding at the ranch. There seems to be a big Corpus Christi component to this ports deal. Also, in the context of Armstrong's firm denial of any drinking, this quote about whether she ever lobbied Cheney is entertaining: "Never!" (Not even while somberly eating roast beef)

What's the Corpus connection, Saltin?

I'm just now reviewing the witness statements. More non-denial denials of likker there, too.

I'm sure someone else has a clearer understanding of this than I do, but the deal for six ports is actually for more than that, including the one in Corpus Christi. I believe I heard the Coprus Christi port in particular handles a large percentage of military shipments. Again, someone else step in here please, I'm cobbling together things I heard on the radio with half-assed google searches. That's not what we all do, is it?

re Woodward, Larisa seems to still stand by the fact that it was Hadley (i'm just relistening to her interview with scott horton)

I could understand FF if he adhered to neocon thinking while deploring Libby-type execution. But he's apparently deploring neocon thinking while supporting Libby-type execution. He's got to be some sort of nutcase.

Thanks Paul.

This is to commend Mr. Paul R. Pillar, the recently retired US National Intelligence Officer for the Near East and South Asia, for his article in the March/April issue of Foreign Affairs (www.foreignaffairs.org) that reveals how the Bush adminstration manipulated and misrepresented the US Intelligence Community in order to promote public and diplomatic support for the invasion of Iraq. Permit me to add a few additional insights.

As a senior Army intelligence officer, since retired, I was well positioned in Washington to observe administration and Intelligence Community activities in the build-up to the Iraq War and feel vindicated by Mr. Pillar's important revelations of what was actually going on at the highest levels. Other than a gap while deployed overseas from August to November 2002, I witnessed the activities he describes on a near daily basis, from January 2002 right up to the invasion in the spring of 2003. Mr. Pillar credibly exposes this administration's selective use and abuse of intelligence to promote their misguided obsession with Iraq.

The equally important underlying story here is the degree to which military, intelligence and diplomatic professionals caved-in to relentless administration pressure to get on the bus, to the point of denying what their own knowledge and experience told them was a historic mistake with far-reaching consequences. For the military, this lapse of judgment resulted from years of self-delusion and social isolation during the Clinton years, fed by a constant stream of conservative media reinforcement. By 2001, most military professionals had become thoroughly inculcated with the view that the Clinton era was so horrible that the new Bush administration had to be the opposite - capable, competent, knowledgeable, thoughtful and honest. This view was widely promoted and accepted without question in the emotional period after 9/11, which struck military people particularly badly. Their primary purpose is to defend the nation and they had failed somehow, but could still strike back hard at the enemy. The only option was to rally around President Bush. After the adrenalin rush of those months dissipated following the collapse of the Taliban in Afghanistan, and the administration abruptly shifted gears to Iraq, without any internal debate, without any attempt to obtain consensual support from military or other professionals, many of those same professionals simply acquiesced and got on the bus.

Doubts and skepticism about Iraq, and there was quite a lot, was quickly sublimated or squashed. I well remember being told in a small, closely held briefing in the late spring of 2002 that the word from our bosses at the very top of the CIA and the DOD, in a directive re-transmission directly from the White House, was "The time for talk and debate is over. We are going to invade Iraq and that's all there is to it. The time has come to shift our focus to getting the job done." This was specifically directed at those who felt there was unfinished business in Afghanistan and Pakistan and strenuously objected to what amounted to a full-scale pullout from there to prep for Iraq. Given the state of mind I described, the wider military put aside their doubts and placed their total trust in the President and his men. Senior officers, many of them quite competent, worldly, learned, even brilliant, shrugged their shoulders and said, "He must know what he's doing. Let's get this over with."

Part of this willful suspension of doubt included accepting the rosy prognostications of the President's men that it would all be over in a few months and everybody would be back home with their new medals and combat patches and promotions, while the rest of the world got the message, 'Don't mess with the United States.' Less charitably, there was also a lot of momentum within the larger 'Green' Army to get some of the action and credit that Special Operations Forces earned in Afghanistan in 2001 while the conventional force largely sat idle. Many in teh Army hoped to demonstrate the continued relevance of combined arms maneuver by deploying networked mechanized divisions, particularly the 4th Infantry Division, in a techno reprise the Gulf War as prelude to the all-important 'Transformation' battles sure to follow an Iraq victory. By the fall of 2003, all that sweetness and light was turning to swamp gas with a toxic fallout that will plague us for decades.

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